Friday, March 6, 2020
Race for the Double Helix essays Deoxyribonucleic Acid, DNA for short, is a molecule that has been one of the biggest mysteries of modern science. What is its structure? Does it contain the genetic code and if it does how is it used? These are some of the questions that puzzled scientist in the early fifties. Many scientists tried to figure out DNA but only four came close to answering the questions. Those scientists were James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. Rosalind Franklin had university degrees in chemistry, she got her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Cambridge University. During WW2, Franklin had made contributions to understanding the structure of graphite and other carbon compounds. After the war she joined the Laboratoire Centrale des Services Chimiques de l'Etat in Paris, where she was introduced to the technique of X-ray crystallography and became a respected scientist in this field. In 1951 she returned to England to King's College, London, where she upgraded the X-ray crystallography laboratory there to work with DNA. Franklin was responsible for much of the research and work that led to the discovery of the structure of DNA. Franklin died of cancer in 1958, at 37. Maurice Wilkins was born in New Zealand but studied to be a physicist at St. John's College, Cambridge. He worked during World War II on the improvement of cathode-ray tube screens for radar and helped the United States work on the Manhattan Project. He researched biophysics with his Cambridge mentor, John T. Randall; first at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland and then at King's College, London. It was Wilkins' idea to study DNA by using X-ray crystallographic, which he had already begun to use when Rosalind Franklin became a research associate for John Randall. The relationship between Wilkins and Franklin was not good which probably slowed their progress. In 1951, 23 year old James Watson, an American, got in to Cavendish Labora...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Leadership and innovation - Essay Example This was supposed to be the case in innovation system that my group was supposed to come up with and present to hospitals (Northouse, 2012). However, team work does not always work out as one would like it to be and with this, there is bound to be friction between the members of the team. Furthermore, there is the possibility that, despite the urgency of the task, there is always bound to be the one person that would be considered as dead weight to the team. The aim of this paper is to act as a reflective diary to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of team work and the best way to deal with conflict in a team. To effectively analyze the strengths and weaknesses of team working and conflict management, I visited various hospitals, and this visit was part of an innovation trip that was supposed to be carried out as a team to make sure that the findings that were collected were to be compiled and presented to the different team members. However, this was not the case. When the team members met for the first day, there was a lot of friction between my team members due to the fact that some of the team members did not exhibit any of their findings or an interest in the task because they had not done anything. The fact that there were different people who had carried out the task at hand and others had not, caused tempers to flare and soon one team member was gunning for the others head. However, the point that arose was that there were different viewpoints on the same topic. This gave me as a leader whose team comprised of people of multidisciplinary backgrounds an opportunity to lead diverse people, and this was proving to be a problem in the long run. In a bid to curb the ensuing anger and conflict among the team member, I opted that the team members that had a background in nursing help those who were not as familiar with the topic. This put a spanner into the progress that the team was supposed to
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Managing financial resources and decisions - Essay Example We also need to determine the implications and related advantages and disadvantages of the sources of finance. Apart from this, Mrs. Jessica Bell wants to purchase a property of 350000 pounds for the business purpose and for this she is considering a long term loan for 12 years and a mortgage of 25 years. She has 70000 pounds for initial deposit for the property. Now we need to calculate and analyze that which one will better option for her for buying the property. Apart from this she needs to understand the meaning and importance of financial planning and the information that are needed about a business by the investors and shareholders. We also need to describe the different types of budgets and the importance of budget analysis in decision making process. we will also analyze the financial statements of a profit making organisation. Venture capital funds support growing firms during their inception stages and before they are going for initial public offerings of shares. Firm will get venture capital as a form of equity capital. It represents a highly risky investment in the hope of earning higher return in future. It typically invests into equity or quasi equity instruments in financial market which will be able to share the risk and profit of the investee firm. Venture capitalist not only invests in the new company but also guides the firm actively in taking major decisions. Financial burden of the assisted firm tends to be low. Venture capitalist normally close it position by liquidating the investment from the assisted firm after 7 years. (Chandra, 2011, p.436). Personal or commercial loans from banks and financial institutions are one of the most popular forms of financing. It includes long term and short term loans. Long term loans are useful to finance fixed assets and large expenses like buildings, property and machinery. Short term loans are having duration of one year or less. These are
Monday, January 27, 2020
Strategy-evaluation Framework for Mattel 1.0 Strategy Review, Evaluation, and Control The best-formulated and best-implemented strategies become obsolete as a firms external and internal environments change. It is essential, therefore, that strategists systematically review, evaluate, and control the execution of strategies. We have developed a general strategy-evaluation framework for Mattel: Reviewing bases of strategy Measuring organizational performance Taking corrective actions Besides that, we will introduce balanced scorecard as another strategy-evaluation tool to analyze Mattel from few areas of objectives: customers, managers/employees, investors/shareholders, operations/processes, community/social responsibility, and financials. 1.1 General Strategy-Evaluation Framework 1.1.1 Reviewing bases of strategy Reviewing the underlying bases of Mattels strategy could be approached by developing a revised EFE Matrix and IFE Matrix. As being well described and analyzed in Chapter 3 and 4 of this report, here, we will revise EFE and IFE Matrix to review and evaluate how effective Mattels strategies have been in response to key external and internal factors. External Factors Opportunities Mattel has a chance to market Barbie to the whole world and make it a recognizable brand worldwide. This has been proven that Mattel tries its best to improve its marketing strategies to penetrate different market segments and strive for stable revenue annually from international market. Weakening dollar makes the price of Mattels toys becomes more affordable. It is helpful in increase its revenue. To take this advantage, in fact, Mattel has reduced the selling price of its products in some countries. Threats Many children start abandoning tangible toys and looking for more interactive and technological toys or cyber/virtual games. That was why Mattel tried to diversify into software industry. However, until now, its result is not satisfactory. One of the reasons is, the adopted strategies are not matched with its corporate culture or operations. Global recession caused reduced spending or down trading for toys. This is inevitable despite how much effort has been made to stimulate the revenue. However, if Mattel is able to make it more affordable and create a need for customers, it might change its situation. However, strategies should be well developed. Different countries with different cultures and languages in fact have posed barriers which hindered market penetration strategies of Mattel. However, Mattel seemed to have overcome them well as it tried to market its products with different languages in different countries and modified the content of ads with some Ã¢â¬Å"local flavorsÃ¢â¬ . Many other competitors keep coming out with different and better products, such high product substitution threat might threaten the competitive position of Mattel. Therefore, Mattel is particularly cautious with its product quality and safety issues. However, there was still an outbreak of toxic toy which caused few millions loss to Mattel. Due to the emergence of China market and since many production plants have been setup in China, raw materials are subject to price fluctuation when the economy of China appears to be unstable. To overcome this, possibly, Mattel can locate its plants at many different countries. The downfall in one country might be offset by the upturn of another country. Internal Factors Strengths With successful operational and marketing strategies, Barbie has been known as a long established brand for 60 years. With recognizable brand portfolio and wide product range to cater various life stage, in fact, Mattel has safeguarded its market leader position for years. One of the strategies is to have new product launch annually, so that, customers will have Ã¢â¬Å"surpriseÃ¢â¬ every year. Such strategies are considered successful. With the effort and perseverance in maintaining business integrity and practicing corporate social responsibility, it has brought much credit to the reputation of Mattel. Despite the scandals, Mattel does have a group of loyal supporters and fans who will purchase new products of Mattel. Such strategy of creating loyalty and trust in customers is very effective in customer retention. Since Mattel has strategic partnership with Microsoft, Disney, BanDai and etc, this created an invincible strength for it. As there are so many other strong rivals who strive to win market share from Mattel, Mattel tries to form a strong alliance with other strong companies in the market. Devoted, highly-motivated and energetic management team which works together to make better and better products and performance and stay together during doom time, this shows that Mattel has a successful HR strategy which retains experienced and outstanding employees in the corporation. Since early year, Mattel has been keeping its intangible assets as its valuables, such as trade names and trademarks. That is why it has a particular department which deals with this issue. Weaknesses Unprofitable mergers and acquisitions of the Learning Company had made a loss of nearly billion in Mattels account. Although eventually Mattel sold off this subsidiary, this reduced the confidence of investors as Mattels management is perceived as too reckless in MA strategy. Due to many external changes, slipping popularity of their core product Ã¢â¬â Barbie has been shown in the declining sales of its product. Therefore, Mattel keeps coming out with new products to retain the interest and passion of customers. After the outbreak of toxic toys scandal, generally, the level of acceptance of customers has dropped. No doubt, Mattel has been striving to give the customers the best products, in terms of quality, safety, and etc, however, such an incident is nearly fatal to the reputation and future of Mattel. No matter how good the strategies are, one scandal might ruin the company as a whole. 1.1.2 Measuring organizational performance This includes comparing expected results to actual results, investigating deviations from plans, evaluating individual performance, and examining progress being made toward meeting stated objectives. Both long-term and annual objectives are commonly used in this process. Criteria for evaluating strategies should be measurable and easily verifiable. Generally, strategy evaluation is based on both quantitative and qualitative criteria. For quantitative criteria, financial ratios are commonly used. There are three critical comparisons: Comparing the firms performance over different time periods Comparing the firms performance to competitors Comparing the firms performance to industry averages Mattels performance over different time periods has been well explained in Chapter 7. Overall, Mattel is able to maintain its financial ratios over years. It only has slight increase or decrease occurred. Therefore, internally, we may say Mattel is financially stable and strong over years. Even during economic crisis period, it was still able to maintain its financial performance at a satisfactory level. On the other hand, to compare the performance of Mattel to that of competitors and also industry averages, two main competitors, namely, Hasbro Inc. (HAS) and Jakks Pac Inc. (Jak) have been identified and served as a benchmark to compare the performance of Mattel Inc. (Mat). From the table below, it is obvious that Mattel is the market leader of this industry which having splendid financial performance as compared to its main competitors. By looking at its valuation, profitability, dividend, growth, liquidity and asset ratios, Mattel is far better than competitors and industry averages. In short, based on quantitative criteria, Mattels performance takes a leading position which created core competency for its sustainability and survival. However, it may guarantee long-term success if it does not proactively improve itself. Year 2008 MAT HAS JAKK Industry Averages Valuation Price/Earnings (TTM) 15.24 14.58 1.52 12.78 Price/Cash Flow 10.73 7.83 10.07 9.54 Price/Sales (TTM) 0.98 1.13 0.75 0.95 Price/Book 2.66 2.46 1.06 2.06 Per Share Data Last Dividend 70.09 42.11 0 37.40 Book Value 5.88 9.3 11.66 1.95 EPS (TTM) 1.07 1.9 -12.8 -3.28 Revenue 5.91 B 4.02 B 903.39 M 3.61 B Profitability EBIDTA 742.00 M 654.33 M 101.79 M 499.37 M Operating Margin 9.74% 12.29% 1.85% 10.29% Profit Margin 6.41% 7.63% 1.42% 7.49% Gross Profit Margin 45.19% 55.96% 35.56% 45.57% Dividend Dividend Yield 4.18% 2.96% 0.00% 2.38% Payout Ratio 70.09 42.11 0 37.40 Dividend Yield 5 Year Average 3.33% 2.07% 0.00% 1.80% Growth Net Income 379.63 M 306.76 M 76.05 M 254.15 M EPS (TTM) 1.07% 1.90% -12.80% -3.28% Revenue 5.91 B 4.02 B 903.39 M 3.61 B PEG 1.56% 1.44% 1.71% 1.57% Financial Strength Quick Ratio (MRQ) 6.41 7.63 1.42 7.49 Current Ratio (MRQ) 2.06 2.61 2.09 2.25 Long Term Debt to Equity Ratio (MRQ) 32.72 81.65 0 31.12 Total Debt to Capital (MRQ) 29.83 34.03 11.64 25.17 ROE 17.32 21.24 9.47 16.01 ROA 10.9 9.67 -46.98 -1.80 ROIC (Return on Invested Capital) 13.8 15.52 9.5 12.94 Assets Asset Turnover 1.43 1.29 0.88 1.20 Asset per Employee 143,123.72 528,095.93 1.03 M 0.57 M Inventory Turnover 6.72 5.74 6.79 6.42 Apart from quantitative criteria, there are some qualitative criteria needed to be taken into consideration. These criteria are presented in question forms, including the following questions: * Is the hiring and recruitment process matched with the strategy? Among the workers working at Mattels plant, a large majority of the workers (79%) got their job by applying directly at the plant site, while another 19% were referred by friends. The average length of employment among the interviewed workers was approximately 4.0 years. However, for 26% of the workers, employment at Mattel was their first job. This indicates that while the workforce includes a sizeable proportion of temporary and seasonal workers, the core group provides Mattel with a substantial number of stable and experienced employees. The hiring process includes general company orientation, which covers such issues as the employment contract, rules of conduct, disciplinary measures, grievance procedures, wages deductions and overtime pay policies, transportation services, facilities, amenities and tour of the factory. Newly hired workers also receive information and training in the topics of Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS Orientation). Each worker at the Mattels plant ha s a signed contract on file. Employee personnel records also include illness and injury reports; disciplinary action reports; medical examinations and maternity leave reports. All new hires are also given a medical examination. They also received job-related training of varying length based on the specific requirements of their jobs. Based on these mechanisms on hiring and recruitment, Mattel is able to ensure they have selected the best and right people to achieve companys goals. Are the workers able to understand and practice GMP? GMP is very important in ensuring the quality of products. Interviewed workers largely confirmed that they were familiar with various provisions of Mattels GMP. Management Compliance Report (MCR) indicated that GMP document in local language was provided to all employees and is available in local language. The Plant Manager plays the key role in communicating GMP information to supervisors and employees. The MCR also stated that information on GMP is provided twice a year, through various sources such as the new hire orientation program, employee handbook, boards and the company intranet. Are the plants workers financially motivated to achieve companys objectives? Financial compensations to plants workers are very important to maintain the morale and motivation level of workers. The minimum wage for Tijuana is $41.67 (Mexican pesos) per day. Temporary workers at the Mexicos plant earn at least $74.00 per day; while the core groups minimum wage is $85. All overtime is paid at double wage rates, up to 9 overtime hours each week. All hours worked in excess of 9 hours per week are paid at triple rates. In addition, workers also receive attendance and punctuality bonuses. Besides, all confirmed workers are also entitled to annual leave, sick leave, maternity leave, free vacation, free transportation, free coffee and bakery products, free training courses, and etc. These policies are able to match the workers objectives with companys objectives when they are well compensated. Are work environment of manufacturing operations and related facilities able to ensure the quality of work from workers? As an example, the plant in Mexico is a large plant consisting of one building covering an area of over 473,000 sq. square feet. The facility has installed a very modern and efficient delivery system for handling raw materials. Resins for manufacturing plastic are delivered by trucks to a roadside facility where they are stored in large silos. From there, they are delivered to the molding machines on the factory floor through a sophisticated computer-controlled system. The process is designed to keep the site clean and helps minimize spillage and waste. The facility maintains, among others, detailed and up-to-date records on plant maintenance, air filtration, noise control, fire prevention, and safe storage of hazardous materials. The high standards of environmental health safety of the plant were also confirmed by the ICCA professional engineering audit team through an extensive Ã¢â¬Å"walk throughÃ¢â¬ of the entire plant. ICCAs inspection confirmed that the plant was in Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ operating condition internally and in Ã¢â¬Å"fairÃ¢â¬ condition externally. The plant provides free-of-charge Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to all employees where use of such equipment is required and appropriate. The factory meets or exceeds the GMP requirements for bathroom, wash basins, and clean drinking water. Toilets are equipped with an effective flushing system and are maintained and cleaned on a regular basis. The dining area at the factory canteen is quite attractive. Colorful paintings, natural light through large windows a nd TV for entertainment provides the dining room with a pleasant environment. There is also an outside eating area for those who wish to smoke. Employees are served two meals per shift. The meals are mostly subsidized by the factory with workers paying only a nominal sum. In addition, the medical clinic at the plant is excellent and well-staffed. It is open 24 hours and seven days a week. It is staffed with one medical doctor and three qualified nurses. The clinic has a good record keeping system for the workers use of the clinic including work-related injury data. In short, Mattel has a well maintained facility and operates in an efficient manner while ensuring that the plant provides a clean, safe and healthy work environment for its employees. This also helps to ensure the workers produce high-quality products. 1.1.3 Taking corrective actions The final strategy-evaluation activity is about taking corrective actions, which requires making changes to competitively reposition a firm for the future. These corrective actions might be derived from the inspection of internal or external auditors who review and evaluate the practices and policies of a company. Some corrective actions, for example, like altering an organizations structure, replacing one or more key individuals, selling a division, or revising a business mission. Other changes could include establishing or revising objectives, devising new policies, issuing stock to raise capital, adding additional salespersons, differently allocating resources, or developing new performance incentives. As for Mattel, despites some of the scandals, it has been performing well since its establishment. When there were discrepancies of performance from target, Mattel had made corrective actions accordingly. 1. Mattel Independent Monitoring Council for Global Manufacturing Principles In this internal auditing practice, the physical plant, including all manufacturing and storage areas, were found to be in excellent condition. The plant and its related machinery were well maintained. The housekeeping appeared to be very good resulting in a neat, clean and safe operating plant. MIMCO was especially attentive to ensure that employees were properly using safety equipment and that environmental practices were being followed. However, there are few areas have been identified to make improvements. Employee Treatment by Line Supervisors MIMCO report of the previous audit had noted that the primary source of employee dissatisfaction pertained to incidents, albeit infrequent, of verbal abuse by line supervisors especially when it is meted out in public and in the presence of co-workers. It was recommended that Montois plant management review all pertinent issues of supervision and human relations in its weekly meetings. Further, the plant management should take action to strengthen its first-line supervisor training program. Work-place Hazards Mattel was found to have insufficient storage space as it had reached its maximum capacity. This shortage led to storage of volatile compounds in a tool crib in the middle of the factory assembly line. Another issue of concern was the noise level in some areas caused by the sonic welding machines. This noise level was found to be in access of Mattel GMP standards in the vicinity of the sonic welding operations. A possible work hazard described by employees was the risk of fire when water spilled from machines on the electric cables in work areas. MIMCO recommended an upgrade to the water feeding system and training of employees. The use of all-purpose utility knives to trim the mold marks was identified as a work hazard by management, production employees and the MIMCO team. These cuts were found to be a major source of injury and lost-days of work. Mattel had made corrective actions accordingly to rectify the mistakes and improve on the insufficiencies. Insufficient Bathroom and Toilet Facilities In the initial audit of Montoi, employees had complained about long waiting time for the use of bathrooms. The employees felt that there were not enough bathrooms to meet their needs when the plant was operating at full capacity. Although, the number of available bathrooms met both the GMP standards and the Mexican law, it was recommended that serious consideration should be given to expanding these facilities. The Montoi plant has added 11 more toilets for female employees and 8 for male employees. 2. Mattels corrective actions on ICCA 2004 Follow-Up Report of Mattel Owned and Operated Plants in China Regular and Overtime Work Hours ICCA found that Mattels plants were scheduling work hours in excess of Mattels 60 hour per week requirement. In response to this, Mattel has elected to limit the maximum number of working hours to 60 per week during normal operations, and 72 hours per week during peak periods and other extraordinary situations, provided that overtime is voluntary, the employees are paid appropriately and work hours in excess of 60 hours per week, but less than 72 hours per week, do not exceed 1/3 of the year for each employee. Payment of Minimum Wages Mattels China partner at the Guan Yao facility had made a good faith effort in negotiating a minimum wage that was competitive with other local cities, and had sought out and received approval for the reduced minimum wage originally stipulated for their area. With respect to this reduction of minimum wage at Mattels Guan Yao plant, Mattel has instituted a policy in conjunction with the new minimum wage increase slated for early 2005, which requires Mattels China partner to pay the stated minimum wage for the area. Due to the inconsistency in legal opinion regarding local waivers allowing a reduction of the minimum wage, Mattel will no longer accept these types of waivers from the local labor bureau. Inappropriate Wage Rate During Temporary Shut Downs and Other Circumstances There are three separate and distinct situations with respect to the amount of money employees are compensated for hours worked. In each case that ICCA has identified, Mattel has gone back and assessed an acceptable corrective action. For example, in the case of Guan Yao Chang An, with respect to the payment of minimum wages during down time for internal factors within control of the plant operations, Mattel has instituted a policy of paying the employees minimum wage during these unexpected shutdown periods. This policy change was instituted in January 2004. Mandatory Deductions and Legally Mandated Benefits Mattels annual leave policy has been amended to reflect the actual days of service an employee has worked over the length of their tenure at Mattel. In 2004, Mattel will compensate employees with 5 days of paid leave for those who quit before the end of the year and have one year of service. Mattels policy with respect to maternity leave was updated in 2004. All employees seeking maternity leave, regardless of whether they return to work, will be compensated for the full 90 days, as allowed under Chinese labor law. Mattels policy on deductions for room and board was changed in 2004. All employees who stay in the dorm and eat at the cafeteria will be charged no more than 50 percent of their minimum wage rate. It should further be noted that staying in the dorms is voluntary for employees. 1.2 Balanced Scorecard There are few criteria have been introduced to evaluate and review the performance of Mattel Inc. 1.2.1 Customers Product Quality and Safety Mattels reputation for product quality and safety is among its most valuable assets. Their commitment to product quality and safety is an integral part of their design, manufacturing, testing and distribution processes, and is essential to the success of their business. Childrens health, safety and well-being are their primary concern. They will meet or exceed legal requirements and industry standards for product quality and safety. They strive to earn their consumers trust through their dedication to safety, and to exceed the expectations of parents. Employees have an obligation to immediately report any concerns about product safety or quality to Mattels Worldwide Product Integrity Department. Consumer Information They respect the confidentiality of consumer information consistent with all applicable privacy and data protection laws and regulations. They do not share, sell or trade any private or sensitive personal information obtained online from children without the prior consent of the parent or unless compelled by legal process. Advertising and Promotions Mattels brand and product promotion activities, including advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays, promotional programs and sweepstakes, should be conducted in a manner consistent with applicable laws and with their reputation for honesty and integrity. They adhere to high standards of commercial fairness in ads and promotions. They must accurately portray the features, quality and performance of their products in all advertising media and packaging in a manner appropriate for their target audience. They do not misstate facts or provide misleading or deceptive information about Mattels products, or the products of a competitor. They should be diligent in safeguarding the reputation of Mattel brands and products by being selective about promotional opportunities, such as event sponsorship and other joint promotions, avoiding association of Mattels name with any product, service or activity which might be considered unsafe or inappropriate for children, or with any person or organization if the relationship might be damaging to Mattels reputation. 1.2.2 Managers/Employees Respect They will treat others as they want to be treated with respect, dignity and fairness. They have the right to work in an environment free from discrimination and harassment based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions), sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, ancestry, social origin, age, disability, marital status, veteran status or other protected characteristics. They also respect their co-workers rights, and remember that such discrimination and harassment will not be tolerated. They should speak out when the conduct of a coworker makes them or others uncomfortable. They each have a responsibility to report to Human Resources any such harassment or discrimination that they experience or observe. Diversity Mattel recognizes diversity as an asset, and is committed to actively seeking and promoting diversity in the workforce. They value the different perspectives, insights and experiences of diverse individuals and cultures, and they aspire to create a company culture that encourages an expression of, and a respect for, diverse viewpoints. They provide equal employment opportunity for all applicants and employees, without regard to factors such as race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions), sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, ancestry, social origin, age, disability, marital status, veteran status or other protected characteristics. They make employment decisions to meet their business needs based on factors such as qualifications, skills and achievement. They comply with local and national employment laws. Employee Health and Safety Mattel is committed to providing a safe, healthful and environmentally responsible workplace, and has established safety programs to provide information and training for safe practices in the normal conduct of business and for emergencies. They are responsible for observing safety and health rules, for taking appropriate precautionary measures and for reporting unsafe or hazardous conditions to their supervisors, to Mattels Global Sustainability Department, Global Security Department or local Mattel security personnel. In order to maintain their high standards for quality, productivity and safety, they should be in suitable mental and physical condition at work. Possessing, buying or selling, using or being under the influence of illegal drugs or engaging in any other activities which create an unsafe work environment while on duty, or when on Mattel premises, are expressly prohibited. The consumption of alcohol while on duty or when on Mattel premises is prohibited except during approved Mattel social functions, or during business meals. 1.2.3 Investors/Shareholders Protecting Mattel Assets All employees and Directors share in the responsibility to protect Mattels assets, including physical assets, financial assets, intellectual property and proprietary information from theft, loss, damage, misuse or waste. Those of them who have custody of company property, such as vehicles and laptop computers, should take appropriate measures to ensure their proper security and use.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Multicultural education seeks to create equal educational opportunities for all students, including those from different racial, ethnic and social-class groups. Multicultural education tries to create equal educational opportunities for all students by changing the total school environment so that it will reflect the diverse cultures and groups within a society and within the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s classrooms. We will look at three different diverse groups, some common characteristics, challenges an educator may have to accommodate these groups and what special learning opportunities can be offered by such a group represented in a class. The three groups we will focus on by culture are Haitians, East Asians, and Hispanics. Some common characteristics they share are all these groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ value learning and education for their children, but they all face discrimination as well, from one time or another in and out of school. They value family as the center of the social structure and consider the father as the lead, the decision maker, the authoritative figure. When these immigrants are mainstreamed into Western American schools, we cannot automatically assume they will merge into our culture, but look into the culture from whence they came in order to understand certain ways and behaviors they may exhibit. Ã¢â¬Å"Special challenges educators have for many, diverse immigrant families, the right to a formal education and all the trappings of school life for their children are very new concepts. It is common for the children to quickly assimilate their peers Ã¢â¬Å"normsÃ¢â¬ about socializing, homework, growing sense of independence and other activities surrounding school. Ã¢â¬ (Kramer, 2000) These are just a few of these difference of challenges a teacher will have to overcome to accommodate these groups. For instance, Americans, Haitians, and Hispanics upon meeting, shake hands, opposed to East Asians. East Asians bow, or nod their heads. When the other groups refer to themselves, they point to their chest. East Asians refer to themselves by pointing to their nose. While some groups look at you when you talk, and this is considered respect, but the Asians look at it as being rude. Consider this, if you were at a table and someone blew their nose, you would consider that as being disrespectful or rude. Not the Asians. Here you can see how important it is to understand oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. What special learning opportunities can be offered by such a group represented in class? By teaching your students to value their differences, you are creating a truly global classroom and an appreciation of each other; you are showing them how to appreciate the rest of the world. Expose the students to this variety of cultures throughout the term, which will enable them to be more tolerable of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s differences. Make discussing the differences in cultures in you classroom an important part of what you and your students do together. Accept the concerns of parents or guardians who are not part of your culture, may be different from the concerns you may have. If you are sensitive to the potential differences when you speak with parents, you will find yourself asking questions that will help you determine what their goals for their children are before you attempt to impose your own beliefs. Stress the importance of an open-minded attitude about people whose beliefs or lifestyles are different from those of your students, and make sure you model that acceptance as well. Have activities and manipulative as a resource to explain the multi-culture of the diverse student(s) in your classroom. This way, everyone learns about each other. Even if you have lived in your community all your life, take time to learn about its various cultural groups. Understanding how these groups are represented in the school system will help you understand your students better. Although teaching students from many cultures can be challenging, one of the most successes of the public school system in America is the variety of cultures that meet in the classrooms each day. At a time when school systems are scrutinized and criticized from many sides, classroom diversity is one of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest assets. Although some people try to define culture in ethnic or racial terms, a broader definition is more accurate, Ã¢â¬Å"every person belongs to a variety of culture groups delineated by such features as geography, age, economics, gender, religion, interest, or educational evel. Ã¢â¬ (Diversity in the Community, 1999) Below is an outline of how Social Studies can be used to accommodate diverse students of grades Kindergarten Ã¢â¬â 12. General Classroom Tips for Meeting Diverse Learning Needs * Relate class to personal real life skills and experiences * Limit expectations to two or three concepts per unit * Evaluate projects rather than doing tradit ional testing * Concentrate on student strengths and bring those strengths into the lesson * Use concise written and oral directions (spoken, written, and oral). Use short answers rather than long essays * Create small group activities * Provide lecture outlines. Pre-teach concept vocabulary, draw pictures, use concept mapping, webbing, organizers, simplify vocabulary * Be aware of academic levels so that reading, vocabulary, and problems can be addressed * Model assignment expectations, show an example of the product * Use multiple intelligences approaches to teaching the same lessons * Use peer tutoring * Use taped materials (text or study guides) (Teaching Strategies for Students with Diverse Learning Needs, 2011) If you ignore the cultural differences among your students, you will create strife and tension. Conversely, if you choose to accept and celebrate those differences, you will find those differences to be a rich resource for your class. By incorporating strategies in the classroom to meet the needs of all the students, and having an environment showing the diverse cultures, every student will learn about each other and every studen t will receive an equal educational opportunity.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Alcoholism is the excessive and usually uncontrollable use of alcoholic drinks. There are many symptoms, complications, treatments and ways of prevention for alcoholism. Certain groups of people may be at a greater risk than others for several different reasons. There are numerous factors in why people may become addicted. Usually, a variety of factors contribute to the development of alcoholism. Social factors such as the influence of peers, family, society, the availability of alcohol, mental illness, stress, and not knowing how to cope with certain situations. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a common thing for an alcoholic to think drinking is the answer to all their problems, but in retrospect drinking is only adding to the multiple complications caused by being a compulsive drinker. Research has been done to explore the reason behind why people drink. However, Ã¢â¬Å"Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today. Ã¢â¬ (NIAAA) The effects of alcoholism have been divided into groups. There are physical effects, psychological effects and effects that contribute to many other health, safety, social and econimical problems. Some physical effects of excessively drinking alcohol can be extremely serious, or even fatal. One physical effect of alcoholism is causing cancer in the liver, kidney and stomach. Alcohol abuse is the leading factor to developing Cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol related Cirrhosis usually develops after more then almost a decade of heavy drinking, but for some it may develop quicker; all depending on how your body reacts to alcohol. Ã¢â¬Å"In cirrhosis of the liver, scar tissue replaces normal, healthy tissue, blocking the flow of blood through the organ and preventing it from working as it should. Cirrhosis is the twelfth leading cause of death by disease, killing about 26,000 people each year. Ã¢â¬ Another physical effect of alcoholism is the altering of nutrients digestions which your body needs in order to remain healthy. Another physical damage that alcohol abuse brings is damaging of the neurons and thereby causing body movement alterations, depression and loss of appetite. Since drinking too much alcohol can raise some fats in the blood, that means it can also lead to high blood pressure, heart failure, and increased calorie intake which could lead to the development of diabetes. Liver diseases and illnesses arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only complications of long term alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse can also lead to birth defects. The most sever cases of birth defects are Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopment Disorder. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is what can happen when a woman drinks an excessive amount of alcohol during the pregnancy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been estimated that one in every seven hundred and fifty infants is born with a patterns of physical, developmental, and functional problems referring to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Some symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may include premature birth weight, developmental delay, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. Alcoholism also causes psychological effects as it changes your normal behavior and this is when you feel anxious and become depressed. Other psychological effects of alcoholism include violence, suicide, family and legal problems. Alcohol abuse can also cause economic effects. This is because getting an alcoholic drink is not cheap. If you drink several drinks on a daily basis you will definitely notice that you are spending a lot of money that can be used for other important stuff. An alarming amount of accidents, crimes and suicides, are the result of alcohol abuse by one or more family members. The latest death statistics released by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), In the United States, in 2010, more than 10,000 people died in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. That is equivalent to one every 51 minutes. Alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crashes cost more than an estimated $37 billion annually. These statistics are avoidable by not abusing alcohol or drinking in an environment that puts others at risk of becoming a statistic. Alcoholism is just as damaging to family members as it is to the alcoholic. Adult Children of Alcoholics often are in denial that their problems come from there parents or parent being an alcoholic. Many of them have severe problems with depression, aggression, or impulsive behavior. Most children of alcoholics make poor career choices and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t capable of being responsible parents, because they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t raised correctly themselves. Due to the large amount of money spent on alcohol and also possible joblessness the family may have to give up certain privileges that a non-alcoholic family wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Being an alcoholic can totally disrupt family life and cause harmful effects that can last a lifetime. Thousands of alcoholics are helped to stop drinking every year. The chances of recovery are good if alcohol abuse or alcoholism is treated in its early or middle stages. Unfortunately, most alcoholics do not receive treatment therefore; over 90 percent of them will die as a result of their alcoholism. On the more positive side about 700,000 Americans receive alcoholism treatment on any given day. However, the techniques of alcoholism therapy only work if the patient is ready to seek help. One of the most traditional ways for an alcoholic to seek treatment is through the Alcoholic Anonymous 12 step program. Other then AA, there are many different programs available to help a person trying to seek recovery. Alcoholism is a disease that could consume ones life, but with support and treatment, many individuals are able to stop drinking and rebuild their lives. Work Cited Page Ã¢â¬Å"National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and AlcoholismÃ¢â¬ . 2007. NIAAA. July. 2007 Article Source: http://EzineArticles. com/? expert=Susan_B_Ward http://www. nhtsa. gov/Impaired.